This paper explores the philosophy of land as an asset within the conflicting paradigms of communalism and capitalism that affect many developing nations in the Pacific region. Using Fiji as a case study, the nature of land ownership is investigated within a framework of influence from the traditional chiefly systems, religions, individual aspirations and external capitalist development impacts. The concept of communalism involves 83% of the land area of Fiji. Within a static non-evolving framework there are indications that hypothetically it could remain operational. However, reality brings different pressures and motivations to bear. Education and evolving individual aspirations can overtake tradition in this regard. Entwined with this evolution is a reaction to a supplanted western land tenure structure that adds to the conflict. Through an investigation of contrasting philosophies and contemporary conflicts between duty, obligation, tradition and capitalism this paper attempts to unravel the confusion, suggesting directions for development and education in this critical issue.