The purpose of this survey is to obtain information on the income, consumption pattern, incidence of poverty, and saving propensities for different groups of people in the Republic of Palau. This information will be used to guide policy makers in framing socio-economic developmental policies and in initiating financial measures for improving economic conditions of the people.
The Palau National Household Income and Expenditure survey (HIES) was implemented over a 12-month period from November 2013 to October 2014. This report is the first generated output of the HIES and it includes information on the survey, interpretation and analysis of data, and an appendix of key expenditure and income tables.
The 2014 Household Income and Expenditure Survey, implemented by the Office of Planning and Statistics, and adopted a new regional standardized methodology that was developed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC).
The main objective of the HIES was to collect household income and expenditure information and an array of socio-demographics data. HIES data:
- contribute to the revision of consumer price indice;
- contribute to the compilation of national accounts estimates; and
- provide information on the incidence of poverty in Palau.
Some 1,145 households were selected (in private dwellings and workers quarters) to participate in the survey, and the response rate was 75.8% (i.e. 869 households responded). This response rate allows for statistically significant analysis at th national, urban and rural level.
The results are summerized in five chapters, which cover population profile, expenditure analysis, income analysis and additional analysis. Additionally, these outputs will provide basic data for social and economic planning and policy development.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
v1.2 Edited data, second version, for internal use only.
Access to Finance
Health Systems & Financing
Unit of Analysis
The HIES survey covered households selected in private dwelling and workers' quarters from 6 stratum;
• East Babeldaob
• West Babeldaob
Geographical stratification: Urban/rural split among the16 states within the 6 stratum.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Office of Planning and Statistics
Bureau of Budget and Planning
Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Statistic for Development Division
Republic of Palau Government
Asian Development Bank
United States Department of Interior
A sample size of 1,145 households were selected (in private dwellings and workers quarters) to participate in the survey, and out of the selected household 869 household responded. This response rate allows for statistically significant analysis at the national, urban and rural level.
The 2014 Palau HIES focused on generating reliable results at the national level, with a secondary focus on producing results for the uban-rural split. The urban population consists of the states of Koror and Airai. The rural population of Palau refers to all other states, excluding the states of Hatohobei and Sonsorol, which are located great distance away from the main population centers, and are very difficult to reach ans only include a small proportion of the population (0.1% of the national population based on the 2012 census).
The sampling frame used was the 2012 Palau census, which provided population figures for everyone living in both private households and group quarters (e.g. worker barracks, school dormitories, prison). The sample selection was done seperately in private dwellings and group quarters. Both types of sample selected are also divided into urban and rural areas, which are considered the stratum.
For private dwellings, the selecion process was different in urban and rural areas. In urban areas, the sample in Koror and Airai was seleced seperately within each state. The process was to sort the households in each state by their geographical position, and then randomly select households in this list in order to achieve the desirable sample size. In rural states, the sample was distributed to each state proportional to the number of households.
For the group quarters, the strategy adopted was to combine group quarters together so that there were roughly 20 people or more residing within them (these combined group quarters are referred to as priary selection units or PSUs). A sample of PSUs was then selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. Within each selected PSU, a sampling of 14 people was selected using systematric sampling from the list of all people living within that PSU. The list was updated within each selected PSU prior to the round in which it was selected, and selections were based on the updated list.
It is important that this list was converted to household units rathen than people because the data for the survey was collected from the household units. In most cases, the person was the household unit; however, there could have been cases where a couple could be living together in a group quarter, in which case they should be listed as one household.
Deviations from the Sample Design
The first stage of the sample design involved splitting the population by those persons living in Private Dwellings and those persons living in Group Quarters. The split for Palau based on the 2012 census was as follows:
Of this population, the persons residing on Sonsorol and Hatohobei were excluded from the survey due to their small populations and the difficulties in reaching these remote islands. These islands only accounted for 16 people (0.1 percent).
For Group Quarters, not all of these living quarters where considered appropriate to be included in the HIES. For this reason, only those persons residing in Work Dormitories were included in the survey. This still accounted for 1,912 persons living in group quarters.
The sample size chosen for the HIES was around 20 per cent, which means 1 in every 5 households should be selected in the survey. This figure was increased a little to account for household who could not be located, or refused to be part of the survey.
A random approach of skipping through a list of households for the private dwelling sample was adopted for both the urban and rural
For the group quarters the sample approach was more challenging. Group quarters were grouped together in such a way that there were at least 20 persons living in each combination of group quarters. From there a sample of these combined group quarters was chosen to represent each round, and 14 persons were chosen from each selection of combined group quarters.
Each workload for an interviewer will comprise of 10 households for the private dwelling sample, or 14 persons for the group quarters.
The overall response rate was 75.8%, a result from 1,145 households selected (in private dwellings and workers quarters) to participate in the survey (i.e. 869 household responded). This response rate allows for statistically significant analysis at the national, urban and rural level.
More than 76% of the interviews were conducted without any issues (household in scope of the survey and agree to collaborate). The main reason for not conducting the survey was refusal (almost 10% of households).
Although 877 family units were interviewed, 8 were removed from analysis because too much information was missing on the survey form. In total, 869 valid interviewed household were kept in the analysis.
In order to produce survey weights to produce more meaningful estimates of both population totals and means, weights were derived at a stratum level. The computation of the stratum level weight was a simple process where the estimates number of occupied households at the time of the survey, was divided by the responding sample for the stratum.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Break / Christmas
Time periods (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
The staff involved in the fieldwork comprised of the following:
• Staff from the Office of Planning and Statistics - HIES Manager
• Quality Control Officers (2)
• Supervisors (3)
• Enumerators (7)
The overall organisation and control of the HIES will be the responsibility of the staff from the Office of Planning and Statistics, in particular the HIES survey manager. The HIES manager will have 3 supervisors working under them, who will be responsible for:
Supervisor 1: All data collection from the private dwelling sample in the rural states (2 Interviewers)
Supervisor 2 & 3: All data collection from the private dwelling sample in Koror and Airai + data collection from the group quarters.
Data collected from the field, after being thoroughly checked by interviewers and supervisors, will be delivered to the two quality control officers for data entry and error checking. The two quality control officers will be responsible for reporting back to the HIES manager on the quality of field work, as well as providing supervisors with error reports at the completion of each round to assist the data cleaning process.
Refer to: 2.1 Team Structure; in the Field Work Manual
2.2 Communication; in the Field Work Manual
Type of Research Instrument
The survey schedules adopted for the HIES included the following:
• Household Control Form
• Expenditure Questionnaire
• Income Questionnaire
• Diary (x2)
Information collected in the four schedules covered the following:
Household Control Form: This form includes the following information:
3. Date of Birth
5. Marital Status
6. Educational Attainment
7. Activity Status
8. Literacy Status
9. Internet Usage
Income questionnaire: This questionnaire has 8 sections and includes the following information:
1. Working for Wage and / or Salary
2. Agriculture, livestock, fishing and other sales
3. Other Self Employed & Business Operations
4. Previous Jobs held in the last 12 months
5. Services Provided to Other Private Households
6. Receipts from Custom Occasions
7. Welfare Benefits/Allowances
8. Other Income, including Remittances
Expenditure Questionnaire: This questionnaire has 16 sections and includes the following information:
1. Dwelling characteristics
2. Dwelling tenure
3. Mortgages and loans for purchase of dwellings
4. Insurance policies
5. Construction of new dwellings
6. Major home improvements
7. Household operation
9. Travel – Domestic & Overseas
10. Education, recreation, sport and culture
12. Credit Cards/ Charge accounts
13. Contribution to benefit schemes
14. Medical and health services
15. Customs Occasions
16. Miscellaneous payments
17. Agricultural Assets
Weekly Diary: This questionnaire has 4 sections and includes the following information:
1. Items Bought
2. Consumption of Items Produced by the Household
4. Winnings from Betting, Raffles and Lotteries
For the household control form, expenditure questionnaire and income questionnaire, a face-to-face interview was conducted with the household to capture the information. For the two diaries, the first diary was left with the household for the first week, for the household to fill out. After the first week, the diary is picked up and the second week diary is dropped off to be filled out and picked up at the end of second week. Interviewers were required to contact each household every two to three days to make sure households were filling out their diaries appropriately.
The HIES questionnaire; modules and diaries are provided as external resources.
Office of Planning and Statistics
Ministry of Finance
Estimates of Sampling Error
No formal measure of sample errors has been calculated for the survey results. Non-sampling errors cannot be readily measured, and include issues such as:
- both respondents and interviewers not completely understanding what was required from the survey;
- the questionnaires being in English, which is a second language for both interviewers and respondents;
- the exclusion of remote areas and institutions from the sampling frame.
The methodological report provides a section on data quality.
As contained in the Letter of the Ministry of Finance to the respondent household:
"All information collected in the survey will be used only for Statistical purposes and shall be held in strict confidentiality. All enumerators, surpervisors, Office of Statistics staff and all personnel that will be involved in the survey shall be required to take an oath of confidentiality/secrecy to ensure survey information are kept confidential and used for the purpose explained above and nothing else. The ownership of the data belongs to the people of the Republic of Palau, data security, confidentiality, and institutional ownership will be held with the Office of Statistics, Bureau of Budget and Planning, Ministry of Finance and will be made available to partner developmental organizations an other institutions/individuals provided the confidentiality issue us upheld."
In accordance with the Republic of Palau Statistics Act of 2011, all information in the HIES questionnaire form will be kept strictly confidential.
Office of Planning and Statistics, Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2014 (HIES 2014), Version 1.2,
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.