HIES collects a wealth of information on HH income and expenditure, such as source of income by industry, HH expenditure on goods and services, and income and expenditure associated with subsistence production and consumption. In addition to this, HIES collects information on sectoral and thematic areas, such as education, health, labour force, primary activities, transport, information and communication, transfers and remittances, food expenditure (acquisition) and gender.
The Pacific Islands regionally standardized HIES instruments and procedures were adopted by NSO for the 2015/2016 HIES. These standards, were designed to feed high-quality data to HIES data end users for:
• deriving expenditure weights and other useful data for the revision of the CPI;
• supplementing the data available for use in compiling official estimates of various components in the System of NA;
• supplementing the data available for production of the balance of payments; and
• gathering information on poverty lines and the incidence of poverty in Niue.
The data allow for the production of useful indicators and information on the industries covered in the survey, including providing data to inform indicators under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This report, the above listed outputs, and additional thematic analyses, collectively provide information to assist with multisector planning and policy formation.
The 2015/2016 HIES was conducted to update the 2002 HIES data and aimed to estimate the total amount HH spent and earnt over the past 12 months at the national level (total expenditure and income).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
V01: Cleaned, labelled and anonymized version of the Master file.
Unit of Analysis
HIES covered all persons who were considered to be usual residents of private dwellings (must have been living in Niue for a period of 12-months, or have intention to live in Niue for a period of 12-months in order to be included in the survey).
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Niue National Statistics Office
Statistics for Development Division, Pacific Community
Methods Development, Monitoring, Data Processing and Reporting
The sample frame used for the selection was the latest HH listing available in 2015. In total 513 resident HHs were listed, and 224 HHs were randomly selected out of this updated list. This sample of 224 HHs is divided in 2 different lists, a first list (list A) of 160 HHs to interview in priority, and an extra list (list B) of 64 HHs to use in case of replacement required (unavailability of the HHs to respond to the interview, or refusal).
The sample distribution for the 2015/16 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES).
Small island surveys are inevitably subject to sampling error. In the case of Niue, financial and human resource constraints prevent increasing the sample size, however it is important to note that the application of the results will be limited due to sampling error.
Despite this, small-island sampling is a common phenomenon in the Pacific and the aggregated results of HIES will be sufficient to serve the primary objectives of HIES. Given the sample size, the 2015/16 HIES will only report aggregated results at the national level (i.e., no disaggregation by urban/rural, for example).
Compared with the 2002 HIES, the sampling strategy for the 2015/16 HIES has an increased overall sample size (by 59 households). As a result, the projected RSEs will be lower than in the previous HIES, which is indicative that the 2015/16 sampling strategy will improve the statistical validity of the results.
The HIES is scheduled to begin on 2 November 2011. Prior to this, the Statistics Niue Office will collaborate with SPC to deliver a two week training of enumerators, data entry operators and supervisors. The training is scheduled for 20 to 30 October 2015.
The field operations will occur over eight rounds consisting of three-weeks per round. During each round, 20 households will be interviewed and all of the data will be entered into the database. Table 3 presents the HIES schedule with the corresponding staff requirements.
Each team will interview and enter data of a randomly selected set of households (10 per team, 20 in total per round) over a period of 3-weeks. Each 3-week block is called a round and there will be 8 rounds in total for Niue 2015/16 HIES.
The round schedule for an enumerator, data entry operator and supervisor is presented below.
In summary, each enumerator will visit each of the 5 households 7 times per round. They will visit households 1 to 3 on every odd day and households 4 and 5 on every even day over 14 days. The data entry of all Modules starts from the beginning of each round as soon as the first visits to the households are completed.
Their activities during each visit is summarised below.
· Module questionnaires have to be filled in by the enumerator during week 1 (visits 1, 2, 3 and 4) and entered by the data entry operator in the same week. During the second week module data are edited and checked during visits 5, 6 and 7.
· Household diary 1 is delivered to the household during the first visit and picked during the fourth visit. Diary 2 is dropped during the fourth visit and picked during the seventh visit. During each visit the diary has to be properly checked by the enumerator.
· Day 17 to 19 in week 3 are used to catch up with any delay during the round, to prepare the team for the next round and for the data entry operator and supervisor to complete data entry of the diaries.
On the overall 156 HHs were successfully interviewed (98 per cent of the sample), and 118 (74 percent) come from the list A (original list of HHs to interview). 38 HHs come from the replacement list (replacements occurred in 24 percent of the cases). Finally, it is interesting to note that 4 HHs are missing (interview incomplete or poor data quality) and were dropped from the final dataset.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Field staff organised in teams where each team is made of two enumerators and one supervisors.
Type of Research Instrument
Four modules are completed by paper-based personal interview, including:
1. Demographic information - characteristics of Household (HH) members, including activity and education profile;
2. HH characteristics and expenditure;
3. Individual expenditure; and
4. Individual and HH income.
Depending on the information being collected, a recall period (ranging from the last 7 days to the last 12 months) is applied to various sections of the questionnaire.
The forms were completed by face-to-face interview, usually with the HH head providing most of the information, with other HH members being interviewed when necessary. The interviews took place over a 2-week period such that the HH diary, which is completed by the HH on a daily basis for 2 weeks, can be monitored while the module interviews take place.
The HH diary collects information on the HH's daily expenditure on goods and services; and the harvest, capture, collection or slaughter of primary produce (fruit, vegetables and animals) by intended purpose (home consumption, sale or to give away).
The income and expenditure data from the modules and the diary are concatenated (ensuring that double counting does not occur), annualised, and extrapolated to form the income and expenditure aggregates presented herein.
The questionnaire being in English, which could be a second language for both the interviewers and respondents, and the need to complete a written diary (noting that: three-quarters of diaries were in Niuean; HHs were given the opportunity to complete a Niuen written diary; and enumerators could mostly converse in Niuean when required).
Niue National Statistics Office
Software used was CSPro.
Data entry occurred after the 3 week period of the round.
The data entry system used system-controlled entry, interactive coding and validity and consistency checks. Despite the validity and consistency checks put in place, the data still required cleaning. The cleaning was a 2-stage process, which included manual cleaning while referencing the questionnaire, whereas the second stage involved computer-assisted code verification and, in some cases, imputation.
Once the data were clean, verified and consistent, they were recoded to form a final aggregated database, consisting of:
1. Person level record - characteristics of every HH member, including activity and education profile;
2. HH level record - characteristics of the dwelling and access to services;
3. Final aggregated income - all HH income streams, by category and type;
4. Final aggregated expenditure - all HH expenditure items, by category and type.
An additional poverty file was also generated.
Data entry was done using the software CSPro.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Amount SE RSE Total amount 95% Interval
Total expenditure 19,282,670 957,770 4.97% 17,405,440 21,159,890
Total consumption expendiutre 16,827,260 708,250 4.21% 15,439,090 18,215,440
Total non consumption expnditure (inc investment) 2,455,410 442,050 18.00% 1,589,000 3,321,820
Total cash expenditure 16,246,310 861,460 5.30% 14,557,850 17,934,770
Total subsistence expenditure 1,395,160 155,870 11.17% 1,089,650 1,700,660
Total food expenditure 5,118,690 277,330 5.42% 4,575,120 5,662,260
Non-sampling errors cannot be readily measured, however it is worth noting the issues associated with non-sampling errors, including:
• both respondents and interviewers may not entirely understand the information required from the survey, which can result in misinterpretation of the question being asked and the incorrect response;
• enumerator and respondent fatigue, resulting in underreporting, especially in completion of the HH diary;
• unwillingness to fully disclose information - especially in a small-island context - such as income and expenditure on some items (e.g., alcohol, tobacco and cash donations);
• the questionnaire being in English, which could be a second language for both the interviewers and respondents, and the need to complete a written diary (noting that: three-quarters of diaries were in Niuean; HHs were given the opportunity to complete a Niuen written diary; and enumerators could mostly converse in Niuean when required); and
• the inability to interview HHs members living abroad but remain dependent on the HH (e.g., students living in school dormitories) or are working to support the HH (e.g., seamen living on a ship), but who have not formed another HH outside of Niue.
"Niue National Statistics Office, Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2015-2016 (HIES 2015-2016), Version 01 of the licensed datasets (February 2018), provided by the Pacific Microdata Library. http://pdl.spc.int/index.php/home"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.