High Frequency Phone Survey on COVID-19 2020, Round 2
Other Household Survey [hh/oth]
The World Bank is providing support to countries to help mitigate the spread and impact of the new corona-virus disease (COVID-19). One area of support is for data collection to inform evidence-based policies that may help mitigate the effects of this disease.
To monitor the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 in Solomon Islands, five rounds of High Frequency Phone Survey on COVID-19 (HFPS) are planned. The documented dataset refers to the second round of the HFPS of Solomon Islands.
A strong evidence base is needed to understand the socioeconomic implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for the Solomon Islands. High Frequency Phone Surveys (HFPS) are designed to collect data on the evolving implications of the COVID-19 pandemic over several years. This data is the second of at least five planned rounds of mobile surveys.
The first round of survey was already completed in late June 2020. Round 2 interviewed 2,882 households across the country in December 2020 and early January 2021, on topics including awareness of COVID-19, employment, and income, coping strategies, and public trust and security.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Household and Individual.
Version 01: Clean, labelled and anonymized version of the Master file.
Dataset distributed by the World Bank Group (WBG).
-HOUSEHOLD: Interview information; Basic information; Awareness of COVID-19; Employment and income information; Coping strategies; Health; Public trust and security; Assets and well-being; Assets; Interview results.
-INDIVIDUAL: Interview information; Basic information; Employment.
pacific-skills, education, training
High Frequency Phone Survey
Urban and rural areas of Solomon Islands.
Respondents aged 18 and over.
Producers and sponsors
World Bank Group
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
World Bank Group
United Nations Children's Fund
Social-Economic Impact Assessment Survey
Korea Trust Fund for Economic and Peace-Building Transitions
Funding data collection and analysis
As the objective of the survey was to measure changes as the pandemic progresses, Round Two data collection sought to re-contact all 2,665 households contacted in Round One. The protocols for re-contact were a maximum of 3 attempts per caller shift, spaced between 1.5 and 2.5 hours apart depending on whether the phone was busy or there was no answer, and 15 attempts in total. Of the Round One households, 1,048 were successfully re-contacted.
In Round One, Honiara was over-represented in the World Bank HFPS (constituting 32.8 percent of the survey sample). All other provinces were deemed under-represented, with the largest differences being for Makira-Ulawa, which represented 3.9 percent of the survey sample compared to 7.2 percent of the population in the census, and Guadalcanal, which represented 14.3 percent of the survey sample compared to 21.4 percent of the population in the census. Urban areas constituted almost half (49.2 percent) of the survey sample, compared to a quarter (25.6 percent) of the census.
To reach the target sample size of at least 2500 households, 1,833 replacement households were added to the World Bank survey. The target geographic distribution for the survey was based on the population distribution across provinces from the preliminary 2019 census results. According to the population census, Honiara constituted almost one quarter (18.0 percent) of the total population. Compensating factors for these differences were developed and included in the re-weighting calculations.
The majority of these were replaced through Random Digit Dialing, but the project did attempt to leverage contact information from ward-level focal points for the Rural Development Project (RDP) in provinces underrepresented in Round One. Of the 145 RDP contacts provided to the call center, 41 were reached, who in turn provided 379 numbers which were attempted as part of regular call schedule. Overall, the sample size achieved for the second round of the HFPS was 2,882 households.
Due to the limited sample sizes outside of Honiara, most results are disaggregated into only three geographic regions: Honiara, other urban areas, and rural areas.
For more information on sampling, please refer to the report provided in the External Resources.
Re-contact was attempted with all households from the World Bank Round Two HFPS sample, by phone, for follow up interviews for the UNICEF SIAS. Up to 5 re-contact call attempts were made per house, resulting in 1530 households being interviewed successfully including households without children. Of these households, a total of 1197 had at least one child (aged 0 to 14 years of age). While the goal was to recontact at least 1500 households with at least one child in the household, this was not possible due to lower than hoped for response rate. Given the time elapsed between the Round Two HFPS and the UNICEF SIAS, the response rate may have suffered because of some households changing phone
Response rate for returning households: 39.32%
The sampling weights were developed for round two of the Solomon Islands high frequency phone survey in a series of steps. As the main shortcoming of using random digit dialing is that the resulting data is representative of the population of mobile phone owners, and according to the most recent data (from International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report and data base (2018) for mobile phone penetration estimates usage as 74 percent of the population, coverage is concentrated in population centers and better off households and individuals are more likely to have a mobile phone which is charged and turned on. Therefore, the pool of respondents is very different from a representative sample of the Solomon Islands population.
Auxiliary data to serve as inputs to the weights is severely limited as there are few recent nationally representative sources. The most recent nationally representative dataset including a measure of welfare was the 2019 Census of housing and population. The results from the recently completed census are not yet available and the last Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was from 2012/2013.
Weights are required for unbiased estimation. because the survey was administered by mobile phones, the respondents were a representative sample of mobile phone holders, not the population overall, and non-random non-response can exacerbate these differences. Previous literature has shown that mobile phone holders are more likely to be male, urban, wealthier, and more highly educated. To make inferences at the level of the population instead of mobile phone holders, it was necessary to reweight the survey data.
Definitionally, the DHS deciles each contain 10 percent of the sample. Using the maximum and minimum threshold values for the DHS deciles to map the mobile phone survey results, it is clear there is a strong bias toward the upper deciles (wealthier) households in the distribution. While weighting can adjust for the bias, there are only 12 and 16 observations in the bottom two deciles of the distribution, respectively. These sample sizes are too small to yield estimates of adequate precision to report results.
Therefore, direct analysis is limited to the bottom four deciles (bottom 40 percent), and then the middle two deciles (middle quintile) and top four deciles (top 40 percent). In addition, each statistic is reported with its confidence interval and all econometric findings are statistically significant, unless otherwise stated.
The "weight" variable in the household dataset is called "weight_hh" and represents household cross-sectional weights, whereas the "weight" variable in the individual data set is called as "weight_ind" and represents individual cross-sectional weights.
For more information on weighting, please refer to the "Weighting" section (p.63) of the report provided in the External Resources.
The sampling weights are included in the data files under the names of:
-weight_hh: household cross-sectional weights;
-weight_ind: individual cross-sectional weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Telephone Interview [cati]
Data Collection Notes
-DATA COLLECTION DATES:
Telephone interviews were conducted through a Solomon Islands call center set up by Tebbutt Research. The dates of World Bank HFPS Round One implementation were June 20 through July 4, 2020. The dates of implementation for the World Bank HFPS Round Two were between December 10 and December 23, 2020, and January 13. The dates of implementation of the UNICEF SIAS were between April 2nd, 2021 and April 21, 2021. As the objective of the survey was to measure changes as the pandemic progresses, Round Two data collection sought to re-contact all 2,665 households contacted in Round One.
-INFORMATION ON INTERVIEWS:
Due to the difficulty of re-contacting the Round One sample, the majority of respondents in Round Two were new respondents (details provided in the following section). The length of the survey was limited to a target of 15 minutes and the survey instrument consisted of the following modules: Basic Information, Employment and Income Loss, Coping Strategies, Health, Public Trust and Security, Assets, and Wellbeing, with the Health and Public Trust and Security modules being asked to a random 50 percent subset of survey respondents. The questions on employment and income were asked of the respondent. In addition, if the respondent was not themselves the head of households, the respondent was asked to supply information for the head of household. The recall period for current employment was in the week previous to the survey. In addition, retrospective questions were asked for new respondents about the baseline (“the start of this year 2020”) as well about the situation at the time of Round One in July 2020 (“around the time of the Independence Day holiday”). The information from the new respondent was then pooled with the returning respondents to have three consistent points in 2020. Three subsequent rounds are planned.
The returning respondents in Round Two were initially asked in Round One about their employment status in January 2020 and about their employment status in June 2020. These respondents were then asked again in Round Two about their employment status in June 2020, and also about their employment in December 2020. For the new respondents in Round Two, retrospective questions about employment in both January 2020 and June 2020 were asked, in addition to asking about their current employment status (December 2020).
New respondents in Round Two were asked to think back to their employment situation one year prior to the survey, which is a substantial recall period that may be associated with significant recall error.
The questionnaire - that can be found in the External Resources of this documentation - was developed both in English and in Solomons Pijin.
The survey instrument for the second round consisted of the following modules:
-Awareness of COVID-19,
-Employment and Income loss,
-Public trust and security,
-and Assets and wellbeing.
All respondents were aged 18 years and above.
At the end of data collection, the dataset was cleaned by the World Bank team. This included formatting, and correcting results based on monitoring issues, enumerator feedback and survey changes. Data was edited using STATA.
The data is presented in two data sets: household data set and individual data set. The total number of observations in the household data set is 2,882 and is 4,279 in the individual data set. The individual data set contains employment information for some household members. The household data set contains information about public services, income, coping strategies, and awareness of COVID-19.
Employment information is collected for all the respondents. If the respondent is not the household head, then employment information was also collected for the household head in addition to the respondent employment information. Information about employment variables were imputed for some household members. Individuals who were working in January 2020 were asked questions about the characteristics of their employment. The information is captured in variables s4q5-7 in the individual data set (was their employment full-time or part-time, formal or informal, and if it had a written contract or not). However, the information is missing for some individuals. To deal with the missing responses, values for these variables were imputed. The imputation process was based on the predicted probability of these variables.
Licensed dataset, accessible under conditions.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users must formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the data depositor.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified on public use data files.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis needs to be immediately brought to the attention of the data depositor
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset. It is accessible to all for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, Institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of the World Bank Microdata Library.
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations,
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the World Bank Microdata Library.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the World Bank Microdata Library, or among data from the World Bank Microdata Library and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the World Bank Microdata Library will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
"Solomon Islands, High Frequency Phone Survey on COVID-19 2020 round 2 (HFPS 2020-W2), Version 01 of the licensed dataset (July 2022), provided by the Pacific Data Hub - Microdata Library. https://microdata.pacificdata.org/index.php/home"
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Statistics for Development Division
Documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (August 2022): This is the first attempt at documenting the 2nd round of the 2020 High Frequency Phone Survey on COVID-19 of Solomon Islands. Done by Statistics for Development Division at Noumea, New Caledonia.