STEPwise Survey for Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors 2002
Noncommunicable diseases are the top cause of deaths. In 2008, more than 36 million people worldwide died of such diseases. Ninety per cent of those lived in low-income and middle-income countries.<a href="http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2011/NCDs_profiles_20110914/en/index.html" class="ext" target="_blank">WHO Maps Noncommunicable Disease Trends in All Countries</a>
The STEPS Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factor Survey, part of the STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) Adult Risk Factor Surveillance project by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a survey methodology to help countries begin to develop their own surveillance system to monitor and fight against noncommunicable diseases. The methodology prescribes three steps—questionnaire, physical measurements, and biochemical measurements.
The steps consist of core items, core variables, and optional modules. Core topics covered by most surveys are demographics, health status, and health behaviors. These provide data on socioeconomic risk factors and metabolic, nutritional, and lifestyle risk factors. Details may differ from country to country and from year to year.
The Fiji NCD STEPS survey was a nation wide cross sectional assessment of 15 to 64 year olds carried out from February to
May 2002 using the WHO NCD STEPS surveillance methodology and instruments with these main objectives:
-To investigate and document the prevalence of key NCDs in Fiji.
-To determine the prevalence of and better understand the major risk factors and their associations for common NCDs in Fiji.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
vc01: Edited data, second version, for internal use only.
Unit of Analysis
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Ministry of Health and Medical Services
Government of Fiji
World Health Organization
Fiji School of Medicine
Menzies Center for Population Health Research of the University of Tasmania
Australian Agency for International Development
Using random cluster sampling, the targeted sample size was 7050 but data obtained from 6788 individuals with 6783 valid participants following the data cleaning process. For the 3rd STEP of biochemical measurements blood samles were only drawn from the 25-64 year age group. More details on sampling are provided on page 12 of the survey report provided under the related materials tab.
Due to the complex multi-stage cluster sampling methodology used in Fiji-STEPS, it was necessary to devise a weighting formula to accommodate weghted data analysis (see Appendix 2 of the report provided under related materials tab).This formula includes three factors related to the probalility of selecting the study populaton using the FIji-STEPS multi-stage sampling methodology, one factor to accomplish a post stratification adjustment related to the sample's distribution of ethnic/gender/age groups relative to the total Fiji population aged 15 to 64 years, and one factor related to the STEP 2 response rate. Inadequate data on STEP 3 participation precluded calculation of a response rate factor similar to that used for STEP 2.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
Questions on behavioral risk factors were mainly derived frm the WHO STEPwise Approach to Risk Factor Surveillance generic questionnaire. There were some adoptions and additions to the questions including kava and questins about NCD conditions and treatment.While the interview form was in English, the actual interview was conducted in either English,Fijian or Hindi depending upon the wishes of the participant. Interviews in Fijian or Hindi followed a standardized script translated from the original English version. The questionnaire is provided as related materials.
Data analysis was accomplished usin the Windows-based Epi Info 2002 - Version2. Frequency distributions with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using weighted complex sample frequencies for all categorical variables. Descriptive statistics including weighted complex sample means with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all numeric variables.
Confidentiality of respondents is guaranteed by Articles N to NN of the National Statistics Act of [date].
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the data depositor.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified on public use data files.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the data depositor.
- Licensed datasets, accessible under conditions
The use of the datasets must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name);
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation;
- the survey reference number;
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
Ministry of Health and Medical Services, World Health Organization. Fiji STEPwise Survey for Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors (STEPS) 2002, Ref.FJI_2002_STEPS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Location of Data Collection
Fiji National Data Repository
Archive where study is originally stored
Fiji National Data Repository
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.