The purpose of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) survey is to obtain information on the income, consumption pattern, incidence of poverty, and saving propensities for different groups of people in Kiribati. This information will be used to guide policy makers in framing socio-economic developmental policies and in initiating financial measures for improving economic conditions of the people.
Some more specific outputs from the survey are listed below:
a) To obtain expenditure weights and other useful data for the revision of the consumer price index;
b) To supplement the data available for use in compiling official estimates of household accounts in the systems of national accounts;
c) To supply basic data needed for policy making in connection with social and economic planning;
d) To provide data for assessing the impact on household living conditions of existing or proposed economic and social measures, particularly changes in the structure of household expenditures and in household consumption;
e) To gather information on poverty lines and incidence of poverty throughout Kiribati.
In addition, newly developed modules were incorporated in the 2019 HIES including:
-Anaemia & Diabetic Test;
-Food Away From Home;
-Disability, Healthy Living & Time-Use;
-Deprivation And Financial Inclusion;
-Geographic Information + Photo;
-Village Resource Survey (Vrs).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Version 01: Cleaned, labelled and anonymized version of the Master file.
pacific-skills, education, training pacific-skills, education, training
pacific-skills, industry, training
National Coverage and Regional Island Groups (Northern Gilberts, South Tarawa, Central Giberts, Southern Gilberts, Linix).
There are five main populations of interest for which estimates are required for this survey: South Tarawa, Northern, Central and Southern Gilbert Islands, and the Line Islands.
Unit of Analysis
Individuals and Households.
The survey covered all persons resident in private households.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Kiribati National Statistical Office
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Kiribati Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
International Labour Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
World Bank Group
In determining an appropriate sample size for a survey of this nature, numerous factors come into the equation. These include:
a) The degree of accuracy required for key estimates;
b) The population size of the country;
c) The manner in which the sample is selected;
d) Cost or staffing constraints which may exist;
e) Whether or not estimates are required for sub-populations;
f) The level of variability in the data being collected.
Each of these factors have different magnitudes of importance, but the major priority should always be on selecting a sample big enough to produce results of suitable accuracy. Many of these issues are generally known as well - for instance:
· A user group may pre-specify what level of accuracy they may wish to achieve for the survey
· The population of a country can normally be estimated to a reasonable level of accuracy
· The sample selection technique adopted is known
· Cost and staff constraints are generally known, and
· A user group can once again provide information on whether estimates for sub-populations are required.
The Kiribati 2019 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) aims to release outputs at the island division level and National level.
The targeted sample size has been determined around 2,000 households based on the results of the previous 2006 HIES that provided the following Relative Sampling Error (RSE) at the strata level:
-Sth. Tarawa: 230 with an average cluster size of 10,5 and a Relative Sampling Error (RSE) of: 6,3%;
-Northern: 245 with an average cluster size of 11,1 and a Relative Sampling Error (RSE) of: 5,7%;
-Central: 217 with an average cluster size of 12,1 and a Relative Sampling Error (RSE) of: 6,7%;
-Southern: 244 with an average cluster size of 11,1 and a Relative Sampling Error (RSE) of: 19,0%;
-Line Is. & Phoenix: 225 with an average cluster size of 13,2 and a Relative Sampling Error (RSE) of: 14,7%;
-TOTAL: 1,161 with an average cluster size of 11,6 and a Relative Sampling Error (RSE) of: 5,4%.
The 2006 Kiribati HIES was based on stratified cluster sampling strategy. The selection of households was based on a three stages selection: island, EA and households. This is the reason why the RSE are above 5% in all domains.
In order to improve the quality of the 2019 HIES results, decisions were made to increase the total sample size (making sur we will not over pass the allocated budget) and to use a stratified cluster sampling strategy based on a 2 stage selection (selection of EA and households).
The optimal allocation of 1,800 households was used as a first step to the sample allocation, and through several adjustments, the total sample size is 2,180 households with a cluster size of 12 households.
-Sth. Tarawa: 600 with an average cluster size of 12, a number of EAS of 50 and RSE is: 3,8%;
-Northern: 400 with an average cluster size of 12, a number of EAS of 33 and RSE is: 4,3%;
-Central: 300 with an average cluster size of 12, a number of EAS of 25 and RSE is: 5,2%;
-Southern: 480 with an average cluster size of 12, a number of EAS of 40 and RSE is: 13,1%;
-Line Is. & Phoenix: 400 with an average cluster size of 12, a number of EAS of 33 and RSE is: 9,3%;
-Total: 2,180 with a number of EAS of 182 and RSE is: 2,9%.
The random selection of PSU (EAs) was based on a probability proportional to size selection within each domain.
Within each selected EA, a total of 18 households are selected in order to have a replacement list of 6 households (list B) and 12 to contact in priority (list A).
Below is a table showing the response rates based on list A (households selected from the sample):
-South Tarawa: 85.8%;
-Is. & Phoenix: 87.5%;
Below is the table showing the completion rates based on valid households from lists A and B (households from the sample + replacements):
-South Tarawa: 99.7%;
-Is. & Phoenix: 100%;
Sample weights were calculated for each stratum and adjusted for non-response. 3 sets of sampling weights have been generated according to the following steps:
- 1. Computation of the first set of weights based on the inverse of the probability of selection used in the random selection sampling process
- 2. First adjustment using the population projection
- 3. Second adjustment based on the age and sex structure of the population
The final "weight" variable to be used in the Kiribati Household Income and Expenditure Survey dataset is called "fweight".
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
To supervise in accordance with the directions of the Statistics Office staff, the completion of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2019 for all selections, specifically to:
a) With assistance from the Island Council, undertake the recruitment of interviewers on their respective islands;
b) Ensure that all schedules and materials are distributed to interviewers according to the instructions of the NSO staff;
c) Ensure that the interviewers understand which household he/she is responsible for and that none are left out;
d) With assistance from the interviewer, conduct information sessions for selected households prior to collecting information from those households;
e) Visit interviewers regularly during the collection phase to make sure they are carrying out their responsibilities correctly;
f) Make sure all forms from the interviewers are accounted for at the end of each 3 week period;
g) Do spot checks for completeness of questionnaires and deal with any problems that might arise in the field;
h) Dispatch all completed questionnaires (in sealed envelopes) to the NSO after he/she is fully satisfied that
(i) All the entries of the questionnaires are properly completed.
The National Statistics Office recruited and trained 5 supervisors. The completed survey forms were processed by staff of the National Statistics Office who recorded their receipt from the supervisors and checked the questionnaires for completeness.
Each survey team was made of 1 supervisor and 3 interviewers - except in South Tarawa which is densely populated where there were 1 supervisor and 4 interviewers. Each team was assigned 6 households each.
5 teams were hired and trained, including 4 teams based in South Tarawa and covering South Tarawa, Central, Southern and Northern groups, and 1 team based in Kiritimati island covering the Line group.
Type of Research Instrument
The questionnaires were published in English.
There are 16 sections in the Household Income and Expenditure Survey questionnaire which relate to the following:
-1. Household ID
-2. Household member roster
-3. Person details
-4. Anaemia & diabetic test
-5. Food recall
-6. Food away from home
-8. Non-food recall
-9. Household details
-10. Dietary recall
-11. Disability, healthy living & time-use
-12. Deprivation and financial inclusion
-13. Migrant worker
-14. Geographic information + photo
-15. Market survey
-16. Village resource survey (vrs).
Kiribati National Statistics Office
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Data editing was done using the software Stata Version 15.
The completed questionnaires were entered into the Survey Solutions CAPI data entry system.
The Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) data is protected under the National Statistics Act and cannot be disclosed to any individual without authorisation from the Government Statistician.
Users and Depositors should note that the data and documentation in the Pacific Data Hub Microdata Library do not belong to the archive but to the individual depositors (data owners of the data) to the archive.
Note: Prior to distributing certain licensed data and documentation, the Pacific Community (SPC) has to contact the data owner in order to obtain permission and that may cause some delays with microdata release.
"Kiribati National Statistics Office, Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2019 (HIES 2019), Version 01 of the licensed dataset (December 2020), provided by the Pacific Data Hub - Microdata Library. https://microdata.pacificdata.org/index.php/home"
Disclaimer and copyrights
All publications need to be cleared by National Statistics Office (NSO) before publication as under the Statistics Act the NSO only has authority to publish national statistical data.
-Version 01 (October 2019): First attempt at documenting the Kiribati Household Income and Expenditure Survey of 2019. Done by Statistics for Development Division (SDD), Pacific Community (SPC).
-Version 02 (January 2021): Second version of the documentation of the Kiribati Household Income and Expenditure Survey of 2019. This version aims at documenting the anonymized version of the Master file (and not the de-identified version as in Version 01). Done by Statistics for Development Division (SDD), Pacific Community (SPC).