This evaluation compares evidence from the literature with Australia’s experience in supporting teacher development in a range of developing countries. It uses case studies to good effect in explaining choices made, the extent to which expectations were or were not met, and the lessons for future Australian assistance for teacher development. The evaluation found mixed results. In cooperation with governments and other donors, Australia has made positive contributions, such as improving teacher frameworks and curriculums, and training teachers through a range of interventions. However, there is room to improve—for example, in enhancing policy, strengthening analysis and negotiating new investments—so teacher education and training will result in better teaching and learning in schools. A significant limitation, acknowledged in this evaluation report, is insufficient attention to measuring learning outcomes. Follow-on evaluations involving the Office of Development Effectiveness are expected to help fill this gap.